The Hebrew nation, thought of as descending from the Patriarch Israel (Jacob). In their history of the period of the Monarchy the biblical writers normally used Israel (in contrast to Judah) of the ten northern tribes, i.e. of those who attached themselves to Jeroboam I after the death of Solomon. In a theological sense the word was used of the whole nation (South as well as North), especially in their covenant-relation with God. In the NT it was transferred to the Church.
The modern Jewish State established in 1948 bears the name Israel.