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John Claudius Loudon (1783—1843) landscape gardener and horticultural writer

Frederick Law Olmsted (1822—1903)



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landscape architecture

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The design of gardens, parks, 1campuses, cemeteries, etc., to provide places that can be enjoyed, both to walk within and to view from a distance. Gardens for perambulation, spiritual succour, pleasure, and recreation have been known since ancient times, and some gardens had re-ligious significance. Often water, in channels, rivulets, or fountains helped to enhance gardens. Certain gardens, e.g. those of the Villa d'Este at Tivoli (1565–72—by Ligorio), were designed to link the present to the past, and contained complex programmes to trigger historical, philosophical, and religious musings. Rigid geometrical planning of gardens was known in Islamic architecture, but in France, the formal Baroque garden, with features such as parterres, was created on a grand scale by designers such as Le Nôtre. There was a reaction against such formality, notably in England, where the landscape garden, laid out in a more ‘natural’ manner to form compositions in the Picturesque fashion, often with fabriques: became influential. Loudon referred to landscape architecture in relation to Repton's creations, and Olmsted and Vaux employed the term ‘landscape architect’ when designing Central Park, NYC. Professional bodies for, and training of, land-scape-architects were pioneered in the USA at the end of C19 and beginning of C20. Many C20 landscape-architects became concerned with ecological and conservation problems, notably in the design of industrial sites, motorways, etc. (e.g. Colvin and Jellicoe).

Bull (2002);Cleveland (2002);G. Cooper & G. Taylor (2000);Holden (1996, 2003);Jellicoe (1988);Jellicoe & Jellicoe (1995);Jellicoe et al. (1996);Lazzaro (1990);Lyall (1991);Pennypacker et al. (1990);Simonds (2000);Steenbergen et al. (1996);Thacker (1979);W&S (1994);Weilacher (1996);Z&Z (1995)

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