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battle of Hattin

Richard I (1157—1199) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou


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Sultan of Egypt and Syria (1174–93). He invaded the Holy Land and reconquered Jerusalem from the Christians (1187), and, for a period, resisted the Third Crusade, the leaders of which included Richard I (the Lionheart). He was later defeated by Richard at Arsuf (1191) and withdrew to Damascus, where he died.

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