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Arthur Koestler (1905—1983) novelist and journalist

Richard Wright (1908—1960)

Stephen Spender (1909—1995) poet


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God that Failed: Six Studies in Communism

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Published 1950, edited by R. H. S. Crossman. It marked a significant point in the reaction against the pro‐Communist mood of the 1930s. It contained contributions by three ex‐Communists, Koestler, Ignazio Silone, and R. Wright, and by three sympathizers, André Gide, Louis Fischer, and Spender.

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