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In psychoanalysis, the linguistic and largely auditory representation of memories accompanying non-linguistic thing-presentations in the preconscious and consciousness, in contrast to the purely thing-presentations in the unconscious (2). Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) argued that in schizophrenia, word-representations are sometimes treated like thing-representations, and in an article entitled ‘A Metapsychological Supplement to the Theory of Dreams’ (1915/17) he described a similar phenomenon occurring in dreams: ‘Where the word-presentations occurring in the day's residues are recent and current residues of perceptions, and not the expressions of thoughts, they are themselves treated like thing-presentations’ (Standard Edition, XIV, pp. 217–36, at p. 228).

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