The form, function, and layout of the city. Geographic attributes—including shape, density, and pattern of land use categories—all reflect the outcome of the urbanization process (Longley and Mesev (2002) Papers Reg. Sci. 81, 1). C. Boone and A. Modarres (2006) provide an account and explanation of urban morphology through time, noting that it was within the constraints of the city-state that urban morphology had its genesis, setting up the foundation for socially defined classes and the related hierarchy.