The first Islamic university, Qarawiyin, was founded in Fez in 859. After that, universities were established across the Muslim world with classical Islamic curricula. In the nineteenth century secular educational systems entered Muslim societies. Colonial powers established modern secular schools to train a new elite to govern and modernize society, resulting in resistance from traditional Muslim ulama. Today most universities incorporate the traditional Islamic sciences and curricula as well as modern sciences. New Islamic universities, endorsed by the Organization of the Islamic Conference, operate in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and Islamabad, Pakistan. With a diverse student body and teaching staff, they seek to combine access to classical subjects with reliance on scientific methodology and nontraditional disciplines.
See also Azhar, al-; Education: Educational Institutions; Education: Educational Reform