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Henry VII (1457—1509) king of England and lord of Ireland

Richard III (1452—1485) king of England and lord of Ireland

Henry VIII (1491—1547) king of England and Ireland

house of Stuart

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House of Tudor

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This is something of a misnomer. The important descent for Henry VII, who founded the dynasty when he defeated Richard III at Bosworth, was the direct line from Edward III through John of Gaunt and the Beaufort dukes of Somerset. The Welsh link, of which Henry and the Welsh made so much, was quite subordinate. Henry V's widow Catherine de Valois made a private marriage with a minor courtier, Owen Tudor. Their son Edmund married Margaret Beaufort, great‐granddaughter of Gaunt, thus bringing a second royal link into the equation. The Tudors were in essence a Lancastrian dynasty and the red rose seems to have been one of the badges of the Beauforts.

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