Bp. of Orléans, poet, and textual critic. A Visigothic refugee from the Islamic invasion of Spain, he was welcomed at the court of Charlemagne and by 798 he was Bp. of Orléans. In 818 he was deposed from all his offices for alleged conspiracy against Louis I.
His writings reflect the intellectual concerns of the imperial court at Aachen. His treatise De Spiritu Sancto is a collection of patristic excerpts on the Double Procession of the Holy Spirit; the De ordine baptismi is one of several responses to Charlemagne's letter to his bishops asking how they understood Baptism. The ‘Caroline Books’ (now attributed mainly to Theodulf) concern the use of visual images in private devotion and in the liturgy. One of his hymns, ‘All glory, laud, and honour’, became the Palm Sunday processional of the W. Church. His most distinctive achievement was his scholarly revision of the Vulgate.