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Turkish. Reforms or regulation. Denotes a period of social and political reform that transformed the Ottoman Empire by integrating institutions deliberately copied from Western Europe; a response to both internal and external political pressures. Tanzimat began with the proclamation of the quasi-constitutional Gulhane Rescript or Charter of Gulhane (1839); the terminal date is harder to determine. The Edict of Reforms (1856) guaranteed Muslims and non-Muslims equal rights and obligations regarding military service, the administration of justice, taxation, education, and employment. Modernization of Turkey under the Young Turks (1980–18) and the republic (established 1923) is an uninterrupted movement proceeding from the Tanzimat.

See also Gulhane Rescript of 1839

Subjects: Religion

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