Pope from 498. He was opposed by a rival candidate, who secured the support of Theodoric, but in 507 Theodoric withdrew his opposition. In the latter part of his pontificate Symmachus devoted himself to the defence of the Catholic faith against the Henoticon of Zeno and against the Manichaeans, whom he expelled from Rome. He sent the pallium to Caesarius of Arles, the first bishop outside Italy to receive the privilege. He introduced the singing of the ‘Gloria in excelsis’ at Mass on Sundays and the feasts of martyrs (but only by bishops). Feast day, 19 July.