house of Stuart
One of Europe's most resilient royal dynasties, the Stewart or Stuart family ruled Scotland in direct descent from 1371 to 1688, inheriting also the thrones of England and Ireland in 1603. The family was of Breton origin, before settling in Scotland at the invitation of David I, who gave Walter FitzAlan the honorific title of high or royal steward in 1158. The title was subsequently made heritable and the family was known by the surname Stewart until the mid‐16th cent. when, under French influence, it was modified to Stuart. The royal succession came through the marriage of Walter, 6th high steward, to Marjory, daughter of Robert I Bruce. In 1371, the death without issue of Robert I's only son, David II, led to the accession of Robert Stewart (1316–90), the sole heir of Walter and Marjory, as King Robert II. The dynasty's luck finally ran out in 1688 when the 12th Stuart monarch, James VII and II, was ousted in the Glorious Revolution.