For the sports that were popular before the age of mass spectator sports, see Robert W. Malcolmson, Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700–1850 (1973), especially ch. 3 on football, cricket, wrestling, boxing, running, etc. The rise of professional sport in the second half of the 19th century has begun to attract the attention of historians. See Tony Mason, Association Football and English Society, 1863–1915 (1980), David Brailsford, Sport, Time and Society: The British at Play (1991), John Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870–1914 (1993), and Mike Huggins, The Victorians and Sport (2004). For a study of the various sports in one locality, see Patrick Renshaw, ‘Aspects of Sport and Recreation’, in Clyde Binfield et al., History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993, ii (1993).