Pope from 1585. His pontificate was devoted to far-reaching reforms in the government of the Church and of the Papal States, ruthlessly implemented. He put the Papal finances on a sound footing by the sale of certain offices, the setting up of more ‘montes’, and additional taxes. He fixed the number of cardinals at 70 and established the Roman Congregations. He built the Lateran Palace and the Vatican Library, and supplied Rome with drinking water. He also inaugurated an edition of the Vulgate.