Cambodian king (1941–55; 1993–2004), Prime Minister (1955–60), and head of state (1960–70; 1975–76). Two years after Cambodian independence (1953) Sihanouk abdicated in order to become Premier, passing the throne to his father Prince Norodom Suramarit (died 1960). On his father's death, Prince Sihanouk proclaimed himself head of state, a position he retained until a US-backed military coup ten years later. Sihanouk was reinstated by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, only to be removed the following year. After serving as President of the government-in-exile (1982–89), he was appointed head of state by the provisional government and subsequently crowned for the second time (1993). In 2004 Sihanouk abdicated in favour of his son Norodom Sihamoni.