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Holy Roman Emperor (1411–37), king of Hungary (1387–1437), Germany (1411–37), Bohemia (1419–37), and Lombardy (1431–37), the last emperor of the House of Luxemburg. In 1396 he was defeated by the Turks at Nicopolis but went on to acquire and secure a large number of territories and titles in a long and violent reign, which featured warfare with the Hussites, Venetians, and rivals for the thrones of Hungary and Germany. An orthodox Catholic, he acted severely against the Hussites, and put pressure on the pope to call a council at Constance to end the Hussite Schism; Sigismund promised Huss safe-conduct to attend the council, which subsequently ordered his death.

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