Muhammad ibn Idris al- Shafiʿi
Jurist, theologian, and founder of the Shafii school of Islamic law. Born in Gaza. Died in Egypt. Educated in Quran, hadith, and fiqh in Mecca, Medina, and Iraq. Systematized the theoretical bases of Islamic law and outlined the doctrines and differences of Islamic law schools; thus often called the architect of Islamic law. First jurist to insist that hadith were decisive source of law over customary doctrines of earlier schools. Rejected use of ray (personal opinion) in favor of qiyas (analogy). Argued for grounding all legal deductions in the Quran and Sunnah, defined as hadith reports. Authorized the practice of consensus (ijma) and rejected juristic preference (istishan) as a source of law. Taught that penal sanctions lapse in cases where repentance precedes punishment.