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Seminole Wars

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(1816–18; 1835–42)

Two wars against Native American in the south-east US. Natives of Florida, the Seminole retaliated against US military forces sent into their area in search of escaped slaves. Andrew Jackson's subsequent punitive expedition forced the Seminole south into the Everglades. In 1819 Spain ceded east Florida to the USA, and in 1832 the Seminole were forced to sign a treaty involving their removal to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi (Trail of Tears). A substantial part of the tribe under Osceola refused to move and held out in the Everglades until Osceola was treacherously captured and most of his followers exterminated. General William T. Worth then ordered (1841) that the Seminoles' crops be burned and their villages destroyed. Starved into surrender, the Seminole signed a peace treaty (1842) and accepted their deportation westwards.

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