Muḥammad Bāqir al- Ṣadr
Iraqi Shii intellectual and political leader. Authored books on philosophy, Quranic interpretation, logic, education, constitutional law, and economics, as well as more traditional works on jurisprudence, compilations of devotional rites, commentaries on prayers, and a history of early Sunni-Shii controversies. His work on economics, Iqtisaduna (Our economics), remains among the most scholarly twentieth-century studies of Islamic economics as an alternative ideological system to capitalism and Communism. His philosophical treatise, Falsafatuna (Our philosophy), is a notable exercise in philosophical exegesis. Sadr's works on the Islamic state influenced the development of the Iranian constitution (1979); he grafted an Islamic component derived from a combination of Shii scholarship and Platonic philosophy onto the traditional separation between the executive, legislative, and judicial powers. Sadr's influence among Iraq's Shiis combined with the threat that Iran's revolution posed to Iraq led to his arrest and execution in 1980.
See also Hizb al-Dawah al-Islamiyyah