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Grain of Oryza sativa (African rice is O. glaberrima); the major food in many countries. Rice when threshed is known as paddy, and is covered with a fibrous husk comprising nearly 40% of the grain. When the husk has been removed, brown rice is left. When the outer bran layers up to the endosperm and germ are removed, the ordinary white rice of commerce or polished rice is obtained (usually polished with glucose and talc). There are many thousands of varieties, in two main groups: long-grained indica and short-grained glutinous japonica.

A 200‐g portion of boiled brown rice is a good source of niacin and copper; a source of protein, vitamin B1, and selenium; provides 1.6 g of dietary fibre; supplies 280 kcal (1 180 kJ). A 200‐g portion of boiled white rice is a source of niacin and protein; supplies 280 kcal (1 180 kJ).

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