Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al- Razi
(d. ca. 925)
Persian scientist, physician, and Platonist philosopher, known in the West as Rhazes. Focused on expansion of empirical medical knowledge and practical procedures for treatment, rather than theoretical reflections on illness and health. Emphasized method, practice, observational diagnosis, and therapy. Criticized extant medical knowledge on the basis of empirical observation. Wrote two compendia of clinical medicine, Al-kitab al-mansuri and Al-hawi, discussing diseases, symptoms, treatments, and clinical observations, that were translated into Latin in the Middle Ages and were influential in the development of European medicine. Believed that reason was a competent means of discovering the truth and cultivating morals; thus revelation and prophethood were superfluous.