Emelian Ivanovich Pugachev
Cossack and leader of a massive popular uprising in 1773–74 against the rule of Catherine II (the Great) of Russia. Deserting the army, he won the support of discontented serfs, cossacks, miners, and such recently conquered peoples as the Bashkirs and Tartars. He captured Kazan and established a court, claiming to be the assassinated Emperor Peter III. He promised the abolition of landlords, bureaucrats, serfdom, taxation, and military service and the restoration of traditional religion. His betrayal and execution were followed by the ruthless suppression of his followers.