A city exhibiting the characteristics of a post-industrial society. Service industries dominate with a strongly developed quaternary sector and footloose industries abound, often on pleasant open space at the edge of the city. Post-industrial cities are also characterized by large areas of office blocks and buildings for local government administration. These cities often exhibit marked inequality of income distribution because of the contrasts between those who are appropriately skilled—professionals, managers, administrators, and those in high-technology service industries—and the poorly paid service workers who look after their needs, together with the unemployed. The former can afford high house prices, and, in fact, contribute to them; the latter cannot. Phelps and Ozawa (2003) PHG 27, 5 present a taxonomy of forms of agglomeration in proto-industrial, industrial, and post-industrial urban contexts, commenting that contemporary, post-industrial agglomerations are larger than preceding forms, with an increasingly complex pattern of specialization within and between urban areas. See also entrepreneur; information city.