The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.

Related Content

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Religion


Show Summary Details


Pius IX


Quick Reference


Pope from 16 June 1846. As Bishop of Imola he instituted a series of reforms, but he was no liberal in temperament, and his refusal, after his elevation to ...

Subjects: Religion

Reference entries

View all reference entries »