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Richard I (1157—1199) king of England, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou


John (1167—1216) king of England, and lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, and count of Anjou


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Philip II


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King of France (1179–1223). One of the Capetians, he succeeded his father Louis VII in 1180 and set about the restoration and expansion of his kingdom. Defeating the Count of Flanders and the Duke of Burgundy, he seized Artois and part of the valley of the Somme. He was obliged initially to accept the homage of King John of England for Normandy, Aquitaine, and Anjou but later recovered Normandy, Anjou, Poitou, and the Auvergne for the French crown. He defeated John and the Holy Roman Emperor jointly at the Battle of Bouvines (August 1214), leaving his country stronger and more united. After these military successes, he devoted his energy to reforming the law and building and fortifying Paris.

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