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Landgraf of Hesse. The most able of the German princes who supported M. Luther, he introduced the Reformation in Hesse, and in 1527 he founded the University of Marburg as a school for Protestant theologians. Though he failed to bring about an understanding between Luther and U. Zwingli, he united the Protestant princes, and in 1531 the Schmalkaldic League was established. His position was impaired by a bigamous marriage in 1540, and he made peace with the Emperor. He devoted his later years to the task of uniting Catholics and Protestants.

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