1 (2nd century bce) A Sanskrit grammarian who produced a celebrated commentary (Mahābhāṣya) on Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyi.
2 (c.3rd–4th century ce) The author (or possibly editor) of the Yoga Sūtra. Of the two types of yoga outlined in what may be a composite text, the ‘eight-limbed yoga’ (aṣṭāṅga-yoga) is associated by some with Patañjali himself. He is traditionally, but probably mistakenly, identified with the grammarian (1).
3 The name given to a legendary ṛṣi and devotee of Śiva at Cidambaram. He was said to be the human form of Śeṣa (depicted with the lower body of a snake). Two ritual manuals, the Patañjalipūjāsūtra and the Citsabheśvarotsavasūtra are attributed to him.