The science of dealing with MSS on papyrus. Papyrus is a writing material made out of the fibres of the stem of a water plant which formerly grew plentifully in the Nile. It was used in ancient Egypt and became the chief writing material in the Greco–Roman world from at least the 5th cent. bc to the 4th cent. ad, when it gave way to vellum. Papyrus MSS have survived in few areas apart from Egypt, where they were first found in 1778. See also manuscripts of the Bible.