A movement seeking unity within Africa. It became a positive force with the London Pan-African Conference of 1900. An international convention in the USA in 1920 was largely inspired by the Jamaican Marcus Garvey. The invasion of Ethiopia by Italy in 1935 produced a strong reaction within Africa, stimulating anti-colonial nationalism. The Pan-African Congress in Manchester in 1945 was dominated by Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah, and by the ‘father of Pan-Africanism’, the American W. E. B. Du Bois. In 1958 a conference of independent African states was held in Accra, followed by two further conferences in Monrovia in 1959 and 1961. In 1963 in Addis Ababa 32 independent African nations founded the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), by which time Pan-Africanism had moved from being an ideal into practical politics.