battle of Newburn
Though the battle of Newburn was little more than a skirmish, it helped to bring Charles I to the scaffold. The first Bishops' War in 1639 ended in negotiation, but the following year a large Scottish army, led by Alexander Leslie, crossed the border and was confronted by Lord Conway's troops, trying to hold the line of the Tyne. At the ford at Newburn, west of Newcastle, on 28 August 1640, the Scots crossed with little difficulty, occupied Newcastle, and dictated such financial terms to the king that the calling of another Parliament was inevitable. The Long Parliament, the following year, executed Strafford and declared itself irremovable, save with its own consent.