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neurological disorders

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The nervous system is subject to a wide range of different disorders, caused by developmental defects (e.g. spina bifida), infectious agents (e.g. encephalitis), neoplasia (e.g. glioma), cerebrovascular accidents (stroke), and degenerative processes (e.g. Alzheimer's disease). Others are caused by inappropriate neuronal activity (e.g. epilepsy), or are problems with higher-order cognitive activities (e.g. aphasia); although these may have an underlying physiological basis; some may have a psychological component (e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), but are important nonetheless. Since the function of neurons depends on ion channels and neurotransmitters, defects in any of these systems affect neurological function. Many disorders have separate entries that lead in turn to other entries. See particularly: neuromuscular disorders; spastic paraplegias; spinocerebellar ataxia; spongiform encephalopathies; startle disease with epilepsy. The US National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke provides an extensive list of neurological disorders.

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