Indonesian intellectual, writer, nationalist, journalist, and politician. Held that a return to the intellectual and scriptural tradition of classical Islam was essential for the modernization of Muslim societies. Understood the nation-state as a tool for constructing Islamic society. Emphasized the relationship between a just society and the rewards of heaven, using the Quran and Muhammad's example as a sociological model for achieving both. Devoted in his younger years to Indonesian nationalism, development, and the struggle to establish a more explicitly Islamic social system; later was the most outspoken proponent of fundamentalism in contemporary Indonesia. Blamed the Christian community for the establishment of Indonesia as a secular rather than Islamic state. Revered by Indonesian Muslim fundamentalists.