(1750—1816) campaigner for Spanish American independence
South American revolutionary. He was a Creole born in Caracas, who received a commission in the Spanish army and fought against the British in Florida and the West Indies during the American Revolution. When that conflict ended with the independence of the 13 colonies he dedicated himself to the advancement of the same cause on the South American continent. From 1783 until his death he was the most active promoter of the idea of Spanish American independence. More successful as a political propagandist than as a military leader, he was ultimately captured by Spanish forces and died in a Cádiz prison.