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Frederick I (c. 1122—1190) king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor 1152–90

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Frederick II (1194—1250)

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Lombard League

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Alliance of north Italian city-states to resist threats to communal autonomy by the Hohenstaufen emperors. Following Frederick I’s reassertion of feudal rights at Roncaglia (1158), the destruction of Milan (1162) ...

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