The costs of transporting goods over a route, but not loading or unloading. The selection of any shipment route depends on the total sum of its network access, line haul, interlining, terminal transfer, and network egress costs (Southworth and Peterson (2000) Transp. Res. C 8). Furuichi and Koppelman (1994, Transp. Res. A 28) report that business travellers value time to the airport twice as much as time on the aeroplane (line-haul time). The 200-year-long collapse in transport time has now been replaced by a plateau in general line-haul speeds, but time/space continues to collapse locally, for example through new fixed links or high speed trains (Knowles (2006) J. Transp. Geog. 14, 6).