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Lateran Councils

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A series of councils held at the Lateran Palace in Rome from the 7th to the 18th cent.; five of them rank as oecumenical in the W. Church. The First (1123) ratified the Concordat of Worms ending the Investiture contest; the Second (1139) condemned the followers of Arnold of Brescia; the Third (1179) regulated Papal elections; the Fourth (1215) defined Eucharistic doctrine (for the first time officially using the word ‘transubstantiate’) and prescribed annual confession; the Fifth (1512–17) invalidated the decrees of the anti-papal Council of Pisa convoked by Louis XII of France.

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