Mesolithic hunter‐ gatherer communities of the east Baltic forest zone extending eastwards into northern Russia dating to the period c.7000–5000 bc. Most Kunda settlements are located near the edge of the forests beside rivers, lakes, or marshes. Elk was extensively hunted, perhaps helped by trained domestic hunting‐dogs. On the coast seal hunting is represented. Pike and other fish were taken from the rivers. There is a rich bone and antler industry, especially in relation to fishing gear. Tools were decorated with simple geometric designs, lacking the complexity of the contemporary Maglemosian communities to the southwest. The Kunda Culture is succeeded by the Narva Culture, who use pottery and show some traces of food production.