Was founded on 24 August 1690 by Job Charnock of the English East India Company at Kalikata on the banks of the Hooghly river in Bengal. It grew quickly as Bengal displaced Madras as the company's leading commercial region. The town attracted a large British community and in 1834 became recognized as the official capital of British India. In 1901 the city was the second largest in the British empire after London. However, in 1912 the capital was removed to New Delhi and Calcutta began a long decline.