Abd al-Rahman al- Kawakibi
Also known as al-Sayyid al-Furati and Traveler K. Syrian Islamic revivalist and advocate of Arab caliphate. Influenced by reform ideas of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (d. 1897) and Muhammad Abduh (d. 1905). Advocated a return to the original purity of Islam, claiming that alien concepts and distortions such as mysticism, fatalism, sectarian divisions, and imitation had led to ignorance and submission to stagnant theologians and despotic rulers who suppressed freedoms, promoted false religion, and corrupted the moral, social, educational, and financial systems of the Muslim nation, as exemplified by the Ottoman Empire. Advocated Arab independence and an elected Arab caliph with limited powers as the basis for the revival of Islam.