İttihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti
Muhammadan Union, political and religious organization founded by Hafiz Dervis Vahdeti, a Naqshbandi Sufi from Cyprus, via the newspaper Volkan in 1909. Known for its role in the insurrection of April 1909 in Istanbul, which aimed to destroy the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). It called for Islamic unity as the basis of the Ottoman state and opposed the reforms envisaged by the constitutional regime. The insurrection was crushed, the Ittihad was proscribed, and some of its leaders, including Vahdeti, were hanged. The Ittihad and events of 1909 have come to symbolize religious reaction in Turkish political life.