Irish Republican Brotherhood
Better known as the Fenian movement. A secret society, organized along cell lines, it became the long‐term agency for the planning of Irish insurrections. It was behind the abortive uprising in Ireland in 1867 and the equally unsuccessful ‘invasions’ of Canada between 1867 and 1870. Its military council planned the Easter Rising; many advanced nationalists blamed the IRB for the rising's failure and argued that its usefulness was over.