International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
A tribunal created in 1993 pursuant to two resolutions of the UN Security Council (UNSC Res 808 & 827 (1993). The Security Council, having found that the widespread violations of international humanitarian law occurring within the territory of the former Yugoslavia, including the practice of “ethnic cleansing”, constituted a threat to international peace and security, exercised its powers under Chapter VII of the Charter. The tribunal's statute gives power to hear cases that extend to grave breaches under the Geneva Convention (Article 2), war crimes (Article 3), genocide (Article 4), and crimes against humanity (Article 5) that occurred on the territory of the former Yugoslavia from 1991 onward. The Statute also strips traditional absolute immunity from public officials for their official actions in Article 7(2). See International Criminal Court.