*Impersonal, institutional relationships between people, mediated by bureaucracies, organizations, markets, corporations, and technological systems (especially information technology). The large-scale proliferation of such relationships is seen by the American sociologist Craig Calhoun (b.1952) as a distinctive feature of modern social integration (see also modernity). He argues that they constitute more abstract levels of relationship beyond those termed primary and secondary (see also primary and secondary groups). Compare social networking.
Subjects: Media studies