The mythology of gender dominant within cultural representations of males, reflecting normative behavioural ideals for males in a culture in a particular period (regardless of the actual prevalence of such behaviour in that society). Such representations promote stereotypical masculine heterosexual values (see also masculinity). Also, those men who exemplify, perform, and perpetuate the mythology of dominant masculinity, who are implicated in the subordination of women and of men who represent marginalized masculinities (such as gay men). In contemporary Western cultures, masculinity is typically associated with personality traits such as independence and competitiveness, role behaviours such as being the primary provider and initiative-taking, and physical characteristics such as muscularity and a deep voice. However, the form of masculinity occupying the hegemonic position in a culture at any particular time is always contestable.