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Young Turks

Kemal Atatürk (1881—1938) Turkish general and statesman, President 1923–38

Ottoman Empire

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Ziya Gökalp


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A Turkish liberal reformer who prepared his country's orientation towards the establishment of a modern secular state. Turkish authorities have on occasion revived the cult of Ziya Gökalp to check the rising tide of conservative Islam in universities.


Subjects: Religion

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