West African Muslim leaders in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Fulani, a major ethnic group in the region, came together under the leadership of Uthman Dan Fodio in a jihad begun in 1804 against the local rulers of Hausa states. The movement established the Sokoto caliphate under the leadership of Dan Fodio's son, Muhammad Bello. The dynasty and commanders in the state dominated northern Nigeria until the British took control in 1903. The British used the dynasty in their policy of indirect rule, and a descendant of Dan Fodio, Sir Ahmadu Bello, the sardauna of Sokoto, was prime minister of the northern region in the first Nigerian republic.
See also Dan Fodio, Uthman; Sokoto Caliphate