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(sing. flāmen), Roman priests within the college of the pontifices. There were three major, twelve minor flamines, each of them assigned to the worship of a single deity, though this did not preclude their taking part in the worship of other deities. The three major ones were the flamen Diālis, Martiālis, and Quirīnālis—of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirīnus (a peaceful ‘double’ of Mars); acc. to the system of Dumézil, these three gods formed the most ancient and senior triad of Roman gods, representing the three Indo‐European functions of law, warfare, and production. Of the twelve deities served by a minor flamen, we know ten, including Ceres, Flora, and Volcanus; but little is known of their priests' duties.

The three major flamines were always patricians and chosen by the members of the pontifical college, never elected. The Dialis in historic times was bound by an elaborate system of ritual rules, marking the holiness of his person and protecting it from pollution. He and his wife (the flaminica) had perpetual religious obligations. By the later republic the other flamines could hold high office, even up to the consulship; successive pontifices maximi did, however, dispute the right of the flamines to abandon priestly duty, leave Rome, and so hold provincial commands, like other politician‐priests. Since the flaminate was the only priesthood devoted to a specific deity, it was the natural model for the new priesthood devised first for Caesar and then for successive emperors after their deaths. Specific rules and privileges were borrowed from old to new flamines, but not the full set of restrictions.

See ruler‐cult.

Subjects: Classical studies

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