The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.

Related Content

Related Overviews


More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • History
  • Early history (500 CE to 1500)


Show Summary Details



Quick Reference

Western Christendom organized several Crusades between 1095 and 1269 to capture the Holy Land from the Muslims. During the 13th century Muslim armies recaptured all their lost territories.

Reference entries

View all reference entries »