The overthrow of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the establishment of a Chinese republic. After half a century of anti-Manchu risings, the imperial government began a reform movement that gave limited authority to provincial assemblies, and these became power bases for constitutional reformers and republicans. Weakened by provincial opposition to the nationalization of some major railways, the government was unable to suppress the republican Wuchang Uprising (10 October 1911). By the end of November 15 provinces had seceded and on 29 December 1911 provincial delegates proclaimed a republic, with Sun Yat-sen as provisional President. In February 1912, the last Qing emperor Puyi was forced to abdicate and Sun stepped down to allow Yuan Shikai to become President. The Provisional Constitution of March 1912 allowed for the institution of a democratically elected parliament, but this was ignored and eventually dissolved by Yuan Shikai after the abortive Second Revolution of 1913, which challenged his authority. Yuan had himself proclaimed emperor in 1915, but by that time central government was ineffective and China was controlled by provincial warlords.