Is the application of ethical reasoning to the situation of business organizations, including their role as employers. It is a growing field of academic research and teaching in university business schools and may also inform management practice, via mission statements, corporate codes of conduct, policies on corporate social responsibility, social auditing, and the codes of practice of management and employers' associations. Within the field of business ethics there is a range of competing positions that are grounded in different schools of moral philosophy. These positions include deontology, utilitarianism, and justice-based theories of ethics (see distributive justice and procedural justice). Essentially, these positions consist of arguments for identifying ethical or desirable management practice. Action (HR policy) may be considered desirable because it treats employees as ends-in-themselves with rights to dignity, privacy, and respect (deontology); because it promotes the greatest good of the greatest number (utilitarianism); or because it satisfies the tests of procedural and distributive justice (justice-based theory).